French manufacturers concentrated on finished products. Although there had been some new crops introduced, and there were problems with underemployment.
He had the advantage over his rivals in that his pots, cast by his patented process, were thinner and cheaper than theirs.
Extract from An essay on the present state of our publick roads Usage terms Public Domain Most roads were in a terrible state early in this period.
Under the putting-out system, home-based workers produced under contract to merchant sellers, who often supplied the raw materials. The people were gradually accepting of social change and the upper and middle classes were interested in new thinking in science, philosophy.
Most cast iron was refined and converted to bar iron, with substantial losses. As a result, this created a large workforce that factory and mine owners could then exploit. Machine-breakers tried in vain to put a brake on developments, but the new inventions fitted together like cogs in a wheel.