In Japan the most celebrated of early Noh writers, Zeami Motokiyowriting at the turn of the 15th century, left an influential collection of essays and notes to his son about his practice, and his deep knowledge of Zen Buddhism infused the Noh drama with ideals for the art that have persisted.
The comic devices used by playwrights of comedy are: exaggeration, incongruity, surprise, repetition, wisecracks, and sarcasm.
It was written in French, the original title is Le Rire. It is characterised by the fact that its protagonists are ordinary citizens.
Plays can develop out of any combination of starting points and patterns. The new individuals, in their passions, obey their own nature In case of Shakespearean comedies, we find characters like Puck, Titania, Oberon, Ariel and Caliban who raise the level of the plays to a new height.
Tragedy will involve the audience in the action and create tension and expectation. With the climax and final end the audience will have learned a lesson and will leave the theatre not depressed or sullen, but uplifted and enlightened.
Effective tragedies need not end in disaster; he gives highest praise to the happily resolved Iphigenia among the Taurians of Sophoclesand, among narrative poems since staging is not essential to tragedyhe considers the Odyssey to have a tragic story as well as the Iliadthough he notes at one point that the effects of such a double-plotted story good end for the good, bad for the bad are more appropriate to comedy.