Ecofeminism the feminism of ecology essay
They focus on ways these harms are caused by such environmental problems as unsanitary water, the location of hazard waste sites, and environmental toxins Gaard and Gruen ; Warren According to Shiva, patriarchy has labeled women, nature, and other groups not growing the economy as "unproductive".
Gaard, G. Merchant argues that the historical shift from an organic to a mechanistic model helped to justify the exploitation of the earth by conceiving of it as inert matter.
Ecofeminism the feminism of ecology essay
While many academic feminists have continued to dismiss ecofeminism since this time, ecofeminist thinking has grown increasingly sophisticated over the years; most contemporary ecofeminists explicitly reject essentialism, basing their philosophy instead on the general conviction that important connections exist between the oppression of women and the destruction and misuse of nonhuman nature within male-dominated cultures. Pettus, K. Green, K. This is the moral premise that superiority justifies subordination. McAndews, D. Teague eds. Many scholars cite the feminist theorist Ynestra King as the cause of that popularization. Consider now three kinds of positions in ecofeminist ethics that have not yet been addressed: care-focused ethics, environmental virtue ethics, and environmental justice ethics. Thus, early ecofeminists determined that solving the predicament of either constituency would require undoing the social status of both. Origins of ecofeminism The modern ecofeminist movement was born out of a series of conferences and workshops held in the United States by a coalition of academic and professional women during the late s and early s. Most Wicca covens demonstrate a deep respect for nature, a feminine outlook, and an aim to establish strong community values. They also challenge traditional research methodologies by encouraging researchers to situate themselves and their research projects within specific historical, cultural, and economic contexts. In the West, gender and environment are the main topics of a large literature, which relate these two elements in ideological terms. In , Bernadette Cozart founded the coalition, which is responsible for many urban gardens around Harlem. Salleh 12—13 Catriona Sandilands' ecofeminist political perspective starts with the premise that ecofeminism contains an inherently democratic vision…[that] needs to be located in the context of contemporary democratic theory.
According to these value dualisms, it is better to be male or culture-identified than to be female or nature-identified. Kafer, A.
Types of ecofeminism
Ecofeminist and author Noel Sturgeon says in an interview that what anti-essentialists are critiquing is a strategy used to mobilize large and diverse groups of both theorists and activists. Gilligan, C. Toxins contaminate water all over the world, but to due environmental racism , certain subversive groups are exposed to a much higher amount. Non-violent protest tactics were used to occupy trees so that loggers could not cut them down. By destroying subsistence economies, maldevelopment projects created material poverty where, before, there had been none. In the s, early ecofeminists discussed that the split can only be healed by the feminine instinct for nurture and holistic knowledge of nature's processes. Starhawk calls this an earth-based spirituality, which recognizes that the Earth is alive, that we are interconnected, as well as a community. They hold that these four factors have brought us to what ecofeminists see as a "separation between nature and culture" that is for them the root source of our planetary ills. In the West, gender and environment are the main topics of a large literature, which relate these two elements in ideological terms. Gardner, C. They talk about the oppression of animals but not of nature. In the English language, animal terms also are used pejoratively against men. This means that how humans are in relationship to others including nature matters morally. One theme is that ecofeminist ethics is a critique and elimination of time-honored, mutually exclusive value dualisms, especially the culture versus nature dualism.
Several feminists make the distinction that it is not because women are female or "feminine" that they relate to nature, but because of their similar states of oppression by the same male-dominant forces. Women stood, hand in hand, demanding equal rights including social, economic, and reproductive rights as well as an end to militaristic actions taken by the government and exploitation of the community people and the environment.
Ecofeminist political philosophy tends to expand these critiques to include ecologically informed visions for conceptualizing politics, political analyses, and the nature of democracy. This means that how humans are in relationship to others including nature matters morally.
Of particular interest to those theorists is the ways in which both women and nature have been associated with negative or commodifiable attributes while men have been seen as capable of establishing order. The colonizers replaced native food crops and forests with such monoculture crops as sunflowers, eucalyptus, and teak, which were cash crops created primarily for export. As Plumwood argues Section 2. She urged women and environmentalists to work together to end patriarchal systems that privilege hierarchies , control, and unequal socioeconomic relations. While the perspective of these books is largely what Mellor calls "Northern" that of the developed, first world , each also addresses the ways that perspectives and concerns of women and others in the "South" may differ from those in the "North. The environment falls into this subordinate category because it continues to be pressed and used to benefit the man machine. In the English language, animal terms also are used pejoratively against men. As such, unlike women, they cannot be oppressed although they can be unjustly dominated. As such, it involves a twofold commitment to critique male bias in ethics wherever it occurs and to develop ethics that are not male-biased. It does so by showing how these concerns involve women-nature connections. Non-violent protest tactics were used to occupy trees so that loggers could not cut them down.
They do not see gendered environmental knowledge that is based on what local women do and know best.
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