They were extremely expensive and in high demand, also in Europe.
By the end of the 18th century, Great Britain had started to dominate the world both geographically, through the establishment of the British Empire, and technologically, with innovations like the steam engine, the industrial weaving machine and more. I mean, we've seen large scale ethnic and nationalistic violence from Rwanda to the former Yugoslavia to the Democratic Republic of Congo to Afghanistan.
In the 19th century it occurred under the fixed exchange rates of the gold standard.
Trade certainly started to become global, and it had even been the main reason for starting the Age of Discovery. Now we look back at its history. Probably the most famous democratic success story is South Africa, which jettisoned decades of Apartheid in the s and elected former dissident Nelson Mandela as its first black president in If climate change continues to accelerate and displaces billions of people and causes widespread famines and flooding, then we will remember this period of human history as short-sighted, self-indulgent, and tremendously destructive.