Such governments determine who may interact with, can be excluded from, or may benefit from the use of the property.
The modern law of landlord and tenant in common law jurisdictions retains the influence of the common law and, particularly, the laissez-faire philosophy that dominated the law of contract and the law of property in the 19th century.
The "new ownership" argument could perhaps be used in the case where ownership of a res nullius is acquired, but in the case of the original acquisition by prescription or expropriation the immovable is not a res nullius; the previous owner's ownership is terminated, and the new owner acquires ownership immediately by operation of law.
Property rights give the owner or right holder the ability to do with the property what she chooses. Also see fn 7 above. The term "transfer of property" generally means an act by which a living person conveys property, in present or in future, to one or more other living persons, or to himself and one or more other living persons.
Tacit hypothecs must normally be perfected before they have real effect. To transfer property is to perform such an act. Following that, it became common to accept that a person could also have an interest in particular abstract and non-physical entities.
An example is a national park or a state-owned enterprise. Normally the mortgagee would have taken some action to interrupt the period of prescription.
In case law the nature and effect of limited real rights are described as part of the requirements for the subtraction from the dominium test, which is used to determine if a right of a non-owner, either to use the immovable property physically or as the object of real security, or to be entitled to the proceeds of the property, can be registered in a deeds registry as a limited real right in favour of the non-owner.
Accordingly, their position in pre-Roman law was the following: Being endowed with reason